Friday, February 7, 2020

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 25

Summary - Essay Example The revolution of the internet made it possible to interlink different computers across the world, making it easier to enhance distribution of materials across the globe. New interventions were made to make it easy to plug, play, compete, connect and collaborate with each other seamlessly. The changes noted after the invention of the internet and advanced technology in digital platforms has made it possible to create a new world that few fathomed in the past. Individual digital materials are easy to sell to the world without the initial hustle of having to go through the stipulated regulations. Instead, the upload of materials has made it possible to provide more information than one can handle in a day, and change the way people relate to information. Friedman looks at the horizontal shift of using information as a platform that replaces the vertical shift present before the advancement of technology. Friedman is sure that the world will continue expanding whether one takes the initiative or not. Even a driver, as noted in Friedman’s travel to Budapest, has a website translated into three different languages. The speed at which the world is moving is making it difficult for people without the passion to develop their skills. The ability to make use of the internet to make sure they gain from the flattening world notion. One’s imagination, therefore, is one of the most important aspects that people need to work on to ensure they take full advantage of the possibilities present. Learning to collaborate is one of the greatest advantages presented to all people who want to make sure they maximize on the increased connectivity across the world. This will increase productivity gains and make it easier to understand the benefits of taking advantage to the globalization attributes across the divide. The revolution will be won by

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Element of Drama Essay Example for Free

Element of Drama Essay Accordingly, elements of drama consist of literary, technical and performance elements. In Hamlet, it can be said that the elements of drama for each category are quite obvious. The first element to consider is the characters. It can be said that most dramas composes of the major and minor characters and in line with Hamlet, The major characters include Hamlet and Claudius and the minor include Marcellus which serves a specific purpose of informing the lead character of the appearance of the his father’s ghost. There is also protagonist antagonist and in the case of Hamlet, the protagonist is Hamlet and the antagonist. Another type of character is the stereotype and the role of Hamlet also shows how such s stereotype has been modified. The theme of Hamlet is commonly stated as the failure’s of the youth of poetic temperament to adjust with different situations which demand action. The plot lies on the struggles of Hamlet and how she cope or not cope with the situation that challenges her. It can be said that Hamlet has been able to achieve artistic maturity through the opposing struggles of the people in the drama the moral integrity that it implies with the audiences. In terms of technical side, it can be said that drama plays have been able to produce a sense of hatred and revenge to the audience with how they perform the drama. For instance, the settings show a heavy feeling in the part of Hamlet because of the death of his father. The musical scores alike provide revengeful music as they try to make the people feel the tension among characters. The actors and actresses of the play has been very effective in making the audience feels the wrath of Hamlet because of what happened to his father (Bradley, 51). It can be said that Hamlet was written with poetic diction that uses eloquent words as well as phrases and the performance have shown in their actions how this drama has been able to create and keep tensions and suspense throughout the play. All in all, it can be said that this drama has been able to use different elements integrated to establish a tragedy. Reference Bradley, A. C. Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear Macbeth. New York: Penguin, 1991.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay --

Over the past century and a half, the spur of Bigfoots existence has questioned many researchers and non-believers alike. Extensive research and findings have sparked many to seek out if there is another creature amongst our woods. Bigfoots existence is limited to substantial evidence such as sightings, footprints, and somatogenic traces. Ben Radford the author of â€Å"Bigfoot at 50 Evaluating a Half-Century of Bigfoot Evidence† explains effectively of the possible existence through extensive evidence and theories whether the beast actually resides among us. The theory of there being an ape like beast that walks through our wilderness all started with a 16mm film in Bluff Creek, California by Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin in 1967. The video displayed a tall, hairy human like figure trolling along a timber clearing walking briskly away from Patterson and Gimlin. The film ignited a craze amongst scientist and viewers to go on a conquest to prove Bigfoots existence. The 1967 film was never proven to be a hoax or real evidence and still today is a toss up. Personal sightings or eyewitness accounts make up what seems to be the most numerous amounts of evidence that’s been brought to attention. Sightings are not justifiable to whether â€Å" Squatch† is real no matter how many sightings are reported. The Pennsylvania Bigfoot Society stores archives of Bigfoot reports across Pennsylvania for almost the past century. Locally, in Erie County, there has suspected to be several eyewitness accounts of Bigfoot encounters. People often confuse a Sasquatch with a bear or some other unknown animal that they may seem to not make out clearly. â€Å" Eyewitness testimony is notoriously unreliable†(Radford 2002). Sure some people would not believe a person ... ... tested hairs and other parts for DNA and concluded that they fit into our family tree. â€Å" Those hair samples that could not be identified as known animal or human were subsequently screened using DNA testing, beginning with sequencing of mitochondrial DNA followed by sequencing nuclear DNA to determine where these individuals fit in the tree of life† (Ketchum 2013). The existence of Bigfoot isn’t quite certain to be real with the numerous accounts of acclaimed sighting and physical evidence that has been laid on the table for researchers to decipher. From my standpoint, Bigfoot is a cryptozoological creature that has yet to be explained that I’m not for certain about. Radford explained the facts whether the existence of Bigfoot is real or just a hoax. It’s just a matter of time when and where this mythological being will proven to be a new life form amongst us.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Strategic Branding on UK Broadband Services

Following the deregulation of the telecommunication industry in United Kingdom, a number of competitors and substitute products have emerged. With the mandate under the Communications Act 2003, the Office of Communication (OfCom) was established as a regulatory office for the UK communications industries, which includes television, radio, telecommunications, and wireless communications services.Its scope, under the Communications Act 2003, is as follows: 1. to further the interest of citizens in relation to communication matters, and 2. to further the interests of consumers in relevant markets, where appropriate by promoting competition.The British Telecommunications (BT) is one of the world’s leading providers of communications solutions and services, which operates in 170 countries around the world. In the United Kingdom, BT serves over 20 million business and residential customers with more than 30 million exchange lines, as well as providing network services to other licen sed operators. Its BT Retail subsidiary is UK’s largest communication service provider, by market share, to the consumer and small business markets. It supplies a wide range of communication products and services, including voice, data, internet, and multimedia services (online Once a nationalized company, BT plc has traditionally dominated the UK’s fixed line telecom market, controlling over 80 percent of the UK’s access lines, earning ? 8,507 million in revenues for 2006 (BT Annual Report 2006). However, the passage of the Communications Act 2003 has been intended to increase competition to the once monopolized of the fixed line industry in UK. Industry experts predicted that BT Retail’s share of the UK’s fixed line market will fall from 82 percent to 45 percent over the next decade as increased competition begins to bite.At the moment, around 93 percent of UK households have a fixed line, with eight in ten supplied by BT. However, despi te the predicament of many industry experts, the benefits of increased competition has not been achieved as BT continue to have strong market dominance within the UK fixed line industry (Richardson 2005). Table 1. British Telecom’s Retail connections Year end 31 March 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total Retail connections (‘000) 29,566 29,661 29,630 28,293 Business 9,208 9,111 8,780 8,353 Residential 20,358 20,550 20,850 19,940 Source: British Telecom Group plc (2006).BT Group plc Annual 2005 Report. (United Kingdom: BT Group) [Online] Available: http://www. btplc. com/Sharesandperformance/Annualreportandreview/Annualreports/Cautionarystatement. htm Table 2. British Telecom’s Broadband customers Year end 31 March 2003 2004 2005 2006 BT Wholesale ADSL end users (‘000) 803 2,226 4,973 7,949 of which are LLU lines 3 11 41 356 of which are BT retail customers 439 967 1,752 2,584 Source: British Telecom Group plc (2006). BT Group plc Annual 2005 Report. (United Kingdom: B T Group) [Online] Available: http://www. htm Despite the high penetration of fixed line business of British Telecom, the level of penetration for broadband services is still very low in the United Kingdom. Project Aims and Objectives The primary objectives of this dissertation will be to determine why many British consumers still opt to use the dial-up as internet connection in the United Kingdom and how companies can attract users to use broadband services. We also review the current market environment such as policies of Ofcom that could affect a company’s marketing strategy.The following is a list of objectives which the author aspires to accomplish in the dissertation: 1. A background study on the current internet access industry in the United Kingdom and prospects on the industry’s growth. 2. An exploration on the relevant theory on the impact of brand equity and brand position ing on company’s profitability and market share. 3. A proposal on effective branding approaches to mitigate the increasing competition with the deregulation of the telecommunication industry in United Kingdom. Importance and Relevance of the ResearchPrimarily the research will be valuable to any business industry or body attempting to build on its business strategies, customer relations and competitiveness in a competitive industry. The research would make businesses more aware of the importance of business strategies in a very competitive industry. It gives you an idea about how businesses can know more about their markets segments and attract more markets. Secondary impact of the research will be on a long term scale, it will aid retail marketing initiatives. The trends of the industry and the markets will have a significant impact on the whole field in the future.The research may also be essential to other interested parties such as the educational institutions business un iversities, news papers and government. The paper will also be useful later on in academics for future references. The Overview of the Study The remainder of this study is as following statement: Chapter 2, Internet Access industry background and market analysis, will provide first a concise information on the industry market value, market segmentation, and leading companies. We will provide a strategic competitive analysis of the industry using Porter’s Five Forces of Competition and SWOT Analysis using BT Group.We will also briefly discuss Ofcom’s strategic review of the telecommunication industry and its effect on industry players in particular British Telecom. Review of brand management, will review related literature on the brand management such as brand equity and brand positioning. Identify the long-term effects of the effective brand positioning in increasing market share within the industry. Chapter 3, Methodology, will present the methods of collecting primar y data from consumers and the chosen research method for the dissertation. Chapter 4, Results and Discussion, will present and discuss the results of the survey.The discussion will also relate the relevant literature and the results that have been obtained from the survey. Chapter 5, Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations, the â€Å"Summary† section will first provide a comprehensive summary of the major findings of this study. The â€Å"Conclusion† section will highlight the implications of the research findings. Finally, â€Å"Recommendations† will be proposed to on the possible approaches to effectively implement an effective branding strategy to mitigate the increasing competition in the telecommunications industry. CHAPTER 2: Review of Related LiteratureThe literature review will consist of three parts: (1) Environmental Analysis, highlighting the recent deregulation and increasing competition within the industry, (2) Competitive Position of British Teleco ms for the market segment of broadband services, and (3) Review of related literature on brand management. In the Environmental Analysis section, the research will discuss the competitive landscape of the broadband market in UK, and define the nature of competition within the industry. The research will describe the role of Ofcom in promoting competition within the industry and specific market segment.The research will describe the market size, volume and growth of the industry. Second, the research will discuss the competitive position of the British Telecom in the market. It will provide an assessment of BT’s strengths and weaknesses and how BT has a very strong foothold of the market. Lastly, the review will also highlight the importance of brand management in growing the broadband services business of British Telecom. In this paper, we follow the framework of Delta model which has been proposed by Hax and Wilde.The Delta model defines three points (1) strategic positions that reflect the fundamentally new sources of profitability, (2) aligns these strategic options with a firm’s activities and provides congruency between strategic direction and execution, and (3) introduces adaptive processes capable of continually responding to an uncertain environment (Hax and Wilde II 1999). The Delta model integrates the structural analysis and value chain framework from Porter with the resource-based view on the Firm and complement those with new Extended Enterprise perspective and with offering Total Customer Solutions.The Internet Service Providers’ Association United Kingdom defines the internet access market consisting of total revenues generated by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from the provision of narrowband and broadband Internet connection through both consumer and corporate channels (Datamonitor, 2007). The United Kingdom Internet access market generated total revenues of $8. 2 billion in 2006, this representing a compound annual gro wth rate (CAGR) of 6. 4% for the period spanning 2002-2006 (Datamonitor, 2007).In a survey conducted by the Office of Telecommunications, 93 percent of homes currently own a fixed line phone, this proportion has remained stable at just over 90 percent for the last year. At least 4 in 5 households are using BT for their fixed line; however, at least a quarter of BT customers would consider using another supplier if they offered services of equal quality. Furthermore, 18 percent of the respondents mentioned barriers to switching as their reason for remaining with BT rather than positive reasons.These consumers were largely living in non-cabled areas with less choice of fixed line suppliers (Office of Telecommunications 2003). Brand name and the Quality of service The main reason BT customers gave for not switching to another operator was satisfaction with BT, this being driven by the fact that the vast majority of satisfied customers (72%) have never experienced any problems with thei r services. Generally, BT customers value the service quality and reliability above cost, suggesting that the trustworthiness of other suppliers alone is not sufficient incentive for these consumers to switch (Office of Telecommunications 2003).Barriers to switching A quarter of customers that would remain with BT if other suppliers offered an equal service, mentioned barriers as their reason for remaining with BT. This equates to 18 percent of all BT customers. The barriers mentioned included: switching being too much hassle, cost of switching, unaware of other suppliers, always used BT, and the additional services. The research, however, notes that the respondents are more likely to live in a non-cabled area – hence limited availability of alternative providers (Office of Telecommunications 2003).Key trends in the telecommunications industry The key word in today’s technology is convergence. In the last two years, global telecommunications company have been developin g the next-generation voice services that could cut corporate call costs by automatically routing traffic between fixed line and mobile infrastructure (online ITWeek). One key development has been the development of Fixed Mobile Internet Convergence, where IT and media industry deliver both content and the infrastructure to consumers.The widespread adoption of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has been a promising to consumers yet holds a mixed fate for the fixed line telecoms market. On a positive note, it offers cheap or often free long distance calling to consumers and can therefore boost market share. However, this may be at the expense of diverted traditional sales and loss of line rental and call revenue on fixed lines. On the other hand, VoIP take-up could spread with the proliferation of wireless broadband, as opposed to wireline broadband, which will serve to expand the fixed line market and encourage a more rapid take up of wireless technologies.The development of more s ophisticated mobile phones and PDA also threaten to detract from fixed line sales as these devices develop the same quality of capabilities as fixed line services (online IT Week). Analysis of Competition The Delta Model builds on the structural analysis of Michael Porter to gain insight and understand the external factors determining the industry attractiveness and match it with the firm’s resources to be successful in the industry (Hax and Wilde II 1999).In his book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, Michael Porter discusses the five forces of competition in an industry. He illustrated the five competitive forces as: (1) Rivalry between competing sellers in an industry, (2) potential entry of new competitors, (3) the market attempts of companies in other industries to win customers over to their own substitute products, (4) the competitive pressures stemming from supplier-seller collaboration and bargaining, and (5) the competitive pr essure stemming from seller-buyer collaboration and bargaining (Porter 1985).Porter’s five forces of competition is a widely used tool to determine the company’s current strengths and competitive position. Having a clear picture of the balance of power in a competitive industry will help in planning for a sustained growth in the industry. In the Figure 5, the researchers analyzed and plot the competitive forces in UK’s fixed line telecom industry (Porter 1985). Rivalry of Sellers: Moderate The UK market is relatively fragmented, with no one company dominant.For end users, switching costs are not very high, and in fact ‘customer churn' is often cited as an issue that ISPs must cope with, particularly in the consumer market. A typical company offers a diverse range of communication-based services, such as TV and telephony, so success in the Internet access business need not be vital to its survival. Furthermore, rapid market growth means that players are not fighting to win a share of a static market from their competitors. Rivalry in this market is assessed as moderate.Buyer Power: Moderate ISPs offer their Internet access services to customers ranging from consumers to large corporations. As fairly similar services can be offered to customers of all sizes, the typical size is quite small. Switching costs are moderate, and include the time required to leave one contract and move to a competing contract. There is some differentiation: for example, one player may offer consumer Internet access as a standalone service, while another bundles it with cable TV services.Also brand loyalty may be significant if an ISP gains a particularly good (or bad) reputation among users. As the Internet has high penetration in the UK, corporate customers in particular will consider the service of vital importance to their business. Overall, buyer power is assessed as moderate. Supplier Power: Strong ISPs act as intermediaries between their customers and the telecommunication infrastructure that underpins the Internet (and telephony): ADSL lines, servers, packet switching software, and so on.Some ISPs, especially telecoms incumbents such as BT, own and operate an extensive physical network themselves. For these companies, key suppliers are manufacturers of the hardware and software involved, such as Cisco Systems. ISPs that do not own a network can purchasing wholesale access to the necessary infrastructure from an owner-operator, and then offer it at retail to end-users. For ISPs using this business model, key suppliers are BT and other network owners.While it is unlikely that ISPs of either type will integrate backwards, since the upstream businesses are very different to their own, most network owner-operators have already integrated forwards into the retail ISP market, and are competing directly with ISPs that do not own networks. Network manufacturers are not completely reliant on the ISP market for their revenues, as they can also operate in markets such as corporate intranet; network owners usually generate revenue from telephone services and their own ISP retail business as well as wholesale Internet access.Overall, supplier power is strong. Threats of New Entrants: Strong The threat of new entrants is strong. New players will be attracted by the continuing strong growth rates in this market. The physical infrastructure needed is usually already available. For example, a cable TV company can move into the Internet access market by making use of the cable network it has already installed; while players without their own infrastructure can buy access to telecom networks.This reduces the capital requirements for market entry – although customer demand for ever-increasing bandwidth may mean that investment in infrastructure will be needed for future growth. Retaliation in terms of price competition is very likely in this market, and new entrants need to differentiate themselves from incumbents †“ not an easy task when selling a commoditized service that can be specified completely with a few parameters such as bandwidth and downtime. Threats of Substitute: WeakThe threat of substitutes is weak: the Internet has developed as rapidly as it has because it is itself a substitute for many other services and products. These include traditional forms of advertising, news providers, music (and increasingly video) physical media such as CDs and DVDs, ‘bricks and mortar' outlets for supplying goods and services, and communication services such as mail and telephony. The benefits of these older substitutes are assessed as small, as the Internet alternatives have clearly demonstrated their popularity with consumer and corporate customers.However, to take two examples, for consumers with concerns over the security of online financial transactions, or businesses who wish to advertise to segments of the population who are not online, the older substitutes may retain advantages. B ritish Telecom’s Competitive Position A company’s strategy consists of the competitive efforts and business approaches that managers employ to please customers, compete successfully, and achieve organizational objectives.It represents management’s answers to such fundamental business questions as whether to concentrate on a single business or build a diversified group of business, which cater to a broad range of customer or focus on a particular market niche. A strategy thus reflects the managerial choices among alternatives and signals organizational commitment to particular products, markets, competitive approaches, and ways of operating the enterprise (Hooley et al. 2001). Sustainable competitive advantage as argued by John Kay is only achieved if the company has distinctive capabilities or resources that its competitors does not have.Kay (1999) argues that resources can be considered as unique or reproducible. A unique resource, for example the brand name of BT, can be considered as an important asset that can be a basis of sustainable competitive advantage. A reproducible resource and capabilities, on the other hand, pertains to assets that can be easily copied or reproduced by competitors and does not offer the company the distinctive competitive advantage. A good example of a reproducible resource would be the process of delivery voice calls.Many are now able to voice call services on their own and can learn the process more very quickly and easily; however, what differentiate BT is its extensive network infrastructure which it has built over the years to gain scale economies, and build on their strategic brand name (Kay 1999). In understanding the sources of competitive advantage, Hooley & Broderick (1998) introduced two fundamental approach in creating sustainable competitive advantage based from Micheal Porter’s Competitive Advantage.Micheal Porter suggests that companies undertake two roads towards establishing itself as a market leader. First, a company can position itself through cost leadership or differentiation. The former strategy requires that a company to operate more efficiently, thereby lowering its operational cost relative to its competitors. The later strategy requires that a company identify a resource that add value for the customer and modify the product or service in a way that will entice the customer to buy (Hooley & Broderick 1998).Hunt and Morgan (1996) recommends a resource-based model as a way to investigate competency and superior firm performance through a more intimate integration of organizational theory, marketing and economics. Furthermore, strategic resource improves a firm’s performance over time. If a firm mobilizes unique and immobile resources to create sustainable competitive advantage, then a firm can enjoy generating greater economic rents than competitors in the industry.In addition, the resource-based theory asserts that distinctive competencies of a fir m can ultimately result to superior outcomes and performance (Luo, Sivakumar, & Luo 2005). Kay (1999) also defined the three primary sources of sustainable competitive advantage as: (1) the market’s barriers to entry; (2) a unique firm history and experience which has transformed the firm and industry; (3) the tacitness of relationship with customers or suppliers. In this section, we assess BT’s competitive position in the market using SWOT Analysis to identify its sources for competitive advantage. SWOT AnalysisAs we have analyzed the competing forces that could affect the overall success of BT in the fixed line telecom industry in UK, we also recognize the need to be able to identify the strength and weakness of BT as well as external opportunities, and threats. Exhibit 3 illustrates a SWOT analysis of BT strategic capabilities. The value of the SWOT analysis is its ease of use, its simplicity, and its flexibility. In addition, SWOT analysis allows the synthesis and integration of various types of information which are generally known but still provides the possibility to organize and synthesize recent information as well.The insight to be gained in performing the SWOT analysis is the understanding of the core competency of the company that would give it a distinctive competitive advantage over its rival. More importantly, it provides the groundwork on (1) how the company’s strategy can be matched to both its resource capabilities and its market opportunities, and (2) how urgent it is for the company to correct which particular resource deficiency and guard against to particular

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Communication Is A Core Aspect Of Ministry Evangelism

I always felt that practical communication is a core aspect of ministry evangelism. How individuals exchange messages through the use of symbols and behavior both verbal, oral and nonverbal is a strong determinant of its effectiveness (Wallace, Rosenfeld, Bodary, Waggenspack, 2009). Effective communication combines a set of skills that includes being a good listener in order to understand what is being said to me by others. Learning and practicing good communication skills will help me to develop an understanding of my emotions and aims supporting the information I relay to others.The impact of good communication skills upon my family, work relationships, and ministry affects my connection with them in the areas of trust, esteem, and understanding. Until recently I have taken the definition of communication for granted not thinking much or considering the characteristics of my application of it in daily interactions with others. Upon careful reading and evaluation of the materials on personality-based evangelism, I now realize why the study of communication is so important. Improving my communication skills can help sharpen my personality and help me to become more efficient for ministry evangelism. I learned that my personality does not only affect me as the communicator, but also those who listen. According to Johnson (2009) there are six types of personality styles in which are assertive, analytical, storytelling, relational, invitational, and incarnational. TheShow MoreRelatedA New Year Of Youth Group1500 Words   |  6 Pagessummer romance with a fellow sponsor that I volunteer at TIC with every week. However, my fears were unnecessary; the added expectations of this internship helped me focus less on the awkwardness of the failed relationship and focus more on my youth ministry efforts. When I was a freshman sponsor, there was a Dordt senior sponsor who interned under the church and was paid by the church for her work. I always felt the shame of being under my processor’s shadow of high expectations because I feel likeRead MoreConcentric Circles of Concern2134 Words   |  9 Pagesserved in the pastorate for twenty years before becoming a faculty member in the area of evangelism at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary serving in the area of evangelism.. He also served as the president of the Oscar Thompson Evangelistic Association. In the later portion of his life Thompson was himself diagnosed with terminal cancer. What may have been a death sentence to some, was seen as a new ministry door to him. Dr. Thompson enjoyed a fruitful minister as a pastoral consultant to theRead MoreFinal Project Essay2663 Words   |  11 PagesWilliam Higley in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course LEAD 620 LUO Mission, Vision and Strategic Planning Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 Biblical Foundations for Ministry......................................†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 Simple Church†¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.4 Attractional Church.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦....†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..6 Organic Church†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 Hybrid Church†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 Strategic Plan†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreUnreached People Group Essay5171 Words   |  21 PagesProposed Strategy13 Gaining Access13 Prayer14 Tent Making Skills15 Bonding amp; Partnerships16 Support17 Conclusion17 UnReached People Group Project Introduction It has been said that worship is the core or center of mission. 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The failingsRead MoreBackground Inditex, One of the Worlds Largest Fashion Distributors, Has Eight Major Sales Formats - Zara, Pull and Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home Y Kiddys Class- with 3.147 Stores in 70100262 Words   |  402 PagesResponsibility in the Supply Chain Interorganisational management of environmental and social aspects in the supply chain Case studies from the textile sector Doctoral dissertation the international institute for industrial environmental economics Lund University, Sweden  IIIEE DISSERTATIONS 2009:2  Responsibility in the Supply Chain Interorganisational management of environmental and social aspects in the supply chain Case studies from the textile sector Beatrice KOGG Doctoral

Friday, December 27, 2019

Solutrean-Clovis Connection in American Colonization

The Solutrean-Clovis connection (more formally known as the North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor Hypothesis) is one theory of the peopling of the American continents that suggest  that the Upper Paleolithic Solutrean culture is ancestral to Clovis. This idea has its roots in the 19th-century  when archaeologists such as CC Abbott postulated that the Americas had been colonized by Paleolithic Europeans. After the Radiocarbon Revolution, however, this idea fell into disuse, only to be revived in the late 1990s by American archaeologists Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford. Bradley and Stanford argued that at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, ca 25,000–15,000 radiocarbon years ago, the Iberian peninsula of Europe became a steppe-tundra environment, forcing Solutrean populations to the coasts. Maritime hunters then traveled northward along the ice margin,  up the European coast, and around the North Atlantic Sea. Bradley and Stanford pointed out that the perennial Arctic ice at the time could have formed an ice bridge connecting Europe and North America. Ice margins have intense biological productivity  and would have provided a robust source of food and other resources. Cultural Similarities Bradley and Stanford further pointed out that there are similarities in the stone tools. Bifaces are systematically thinned with an overshot flaking method in both Solutrean and Clovis cultures. Solutrean leaf-shaped points are similar in outline and share some (but not all) Clovis construction techniques. Further, Clovis assemblages often include a cylindrical ivory shaft or point made from a mammoth tusk or the long bones of bison. Other bone tools were often included in both assemblages, such as needles and bone shaft straighteners. However, U.S. archaeologist Metin Eren (2013) has commented that the similarities between controlled overshot flaking method for bifacial stone tool manufacture are accidental. Based on his own experimental archaeology, overshot flaking is a natural product created incidentally and inconsistently as a part of biface thinning. Evidence supporting the Solutrean theory of Clovis colonization includes two artifacts—a bi-pointed stone blade and mammoth bone—which are said to have been dredged from the eastern American continental shelf in 1970 by the scalloping boat Cin-Mar. These artifacts found their way into a museum, and the bone was subsequently dated to 22,760  RCYBP. However, according to research published by Eren and colleagues in 2015, the context for this important set of artifacts is completely missing: without a firm context, archaeological evidence is not credible.   Caches One piece of supporting evidence cited in Stanford and Bradleys 2012 book, Across Atlantic Ice, is the use of caching. A cache is defined as a tightly clustered deposit of artifacts that containing little or no manufacturing debris or residential debris, artifacts which appear to have been deliberately buried at the same time. For these ancient site types, caches are typically made up of stone or bone/ivory tools.   Stanford and Bradley suggest that only Clovis (such as Anzick, Colorado and East Wenatchee, Washington) and Solutrean (Volgu, France) societies are known to have cached objects before 13,000 years ago. But there are pre-Clovis caches in Beringia (Old Crow Flats, Alaska, Ushki Lake, Siberia), and pre-Solutrean caches in Europe (Magdalenian Gà ¶nnersdorf and Andernach sites in Germany). Problems with Solutrean/Clovis The most prominent opponent of the Solutrean connection is American anthropologist Lawrence Guy Straus. Straus points out that the LGM forced people out of western Europe into southern France and the Iberian peninsula by about 25,000 radiocarbon years ago. There were no people at all living north of the Loire Valley of France during the Last Glacial Maximum, and no people in the southern part of England until after about 12,500 BP. The similarities between Clovis and Solutrean cultural assemblages are far outweighed by the differences. Clovis hunters were not users of marine resources, either fish or mammal; the Solutrean hunter-gatherers used land-based hunting supplemented by littoral and riverine but not oceanic resources. Most tellingly, the Solutreans of the Iberian peninsula lived 5,000 radiocarbon years earlier and 5,000 kilometers directly across the Atlantic from the Clovis hunter-gatherers.   PreClovis and Solutrean Since the discovery of credible Preclovis sites, Bradley and Stanford now argue for a Solutrean origin of Preclovis culture. The diet of Preclovis was definitely more maritime-oriented, and the dates are closer in time to Solutrean by a couple of thousand years—15,000 years ago instead of Cloviss 11,500, but still short of 22,000. Preclovis stone technology is not the same as Clovis or Solutrean technologies, and the discovery of ivory beveled foreshafts at the Yana RHS site in Western Beringia has further lessened the strength of the technology argument. Finally, and perhaps most compellingly, there is a growing body of molecular evidence from modern and ancient indigenous American people indicating that the original population of the Americas have an Asian, and not a European, origin. Sources Borrero, Luis Alberto. Ambiguity and Debates on the Early Peopling of South America. PaleoAmerica 2.1 (2016): 11-21. Print.Boulanger, Matthew T., and Metin I. Eren. On the Inferred Age and Origin of Lithic Bi-Points from the Eastern Seaboard and Their Relevance to the Pleistocene Peopling of North America. American Antiquity 80.1 (2015): 134-45. Print.Bradley, Bruce, and Dennis Stanford. The North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor: A Possible Palaeolithic Route to the New World. World Archaeology 36.4 (2004): 459-78. Print.Buchanan, Briggs, and Mark Collard. Investigating the Peopling of North America through Cladistic Analyses of Early Paleoindian Projectile Points. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26 (2007): 366–93. Print.Eren, Metin I., Matthew T. Boulanger, and Michael J. OBrien. The Cinmar Discovery and the Proposed Pre-Late Glacial Maximum Occupation of North America. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2.0 (2015): 708-13. Print.Kilby, J. David. A North American Pe rspective on the . Quaternary International  (2018). Print.Volgu Biface Cache from Upper Paleolithic France and Its Relationship to the â€Å"Solutrean Hypothesis† for Clovis OriginsOBrien, Michael J., et al. On Thin Ice: Problems with Stanford and Bradleys Proposed Solutrean Colonisation of North America. Antiquity 88.340 (2014): 606-13. Print.OBrien, Michael J., et al. Solutreanism. Antiquity 88.340 (2014): 622-24. Print.Stanford, Dennis, and Bruce Bradley. Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of Americas Clovis Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. Print.Straus, Lawrence Guy, David Meltzer, and Ted Goebel. Ice Age Atlantis? Exploring the Solutrean-Clovis ‘Connection’. World Archaeology 37.4 (2005): 507-32. Print.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Newman Essay - 1278 Words

Nguyen Nguyen Professor David English 100 11 Sep 2014 Does Newman thesis affect the Society? Should students require going to university? Is university the best place for students to become successful person with value job? According to Newman, he believes that students require studying in the university because it is the place to train the intellect and prepare for their future. Moreover, Newman considers that students should study all subjects in the college because these all branches of knowledge are connected together and relate together. When people read the Newman Idea, most people will agree with Newman Idea because the education is very important; and universities have a good educated environment which provides for students. I†¦show more content†¦They still have their own life such as working to support their family and taking care of their children. If students spend a long time in universities, they will not have enough time in order to make money to support their own life. The more time students spend in college, th e more money they have to pay. For example, international students have to pay more than two hundred fifty dollars per units. Studying cost a lot of money. Furthermore, some subject is not necessary for students. For example, some students study art, which require for General Education degree, will waste their time if their major is business. Students who study business will waste their time if they study music, art, and dance. These subjects cannot help for their major in the future. In summary, general education is wasting students’ time and money. University should not have many general education requirements in the university. Secondly, the government will not have enough budgets to support for students who have low income. The more students in the college are the more budgets the government has to spend out to support. In California, the government has a program to support for students with low income if they want go to school; these programs include financial aid, EOPS, and others. For example, the government supports about two thousand three hundred for one student per semesterShow MoreRelatedNursing and Mrs. Newman Essay2424 Words   |  10 PagesMrs. Newman has been experiencing hoarseness and a change in her voice, but she did not seek medical help until she began to have difficulty swallowing. After being seen by her healthcare provider, she is scheduled for outpatient surgery for a direct laryngoscope to obtain a culture and take a biopsy. Mrs. Newman arrives at the outpatient surgical department at 6:30 am and is escorted to her room. The admitting nurse begins her assessment; 1. 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